Articles Posted in E-commerce

Cybersecurity risk management has become a more challenging endeavor recently. It was never an easy task for commercial enterprises, but now that we’re facing a global pandemic and economic recession, there are additional challenges. At this point, most of our personal information is being transmitted and stored on the internet. Third-party cloud service providers have become a useful variable in the equation but they can also become a liability if there is a cybersecurity incident. Therefore, cybersecurity risk management has become more difficult especially since commercial enterprises share personal or confidential information with third parties.

The fact that our personal information is no longer in our possession or control makes cybersecurity risk management more challenging. Now, if, our personal information was stored in one location, and as such, was in one company’s possession, life would have been easier. However, multiple vendors, and third-party service providers gain access to our confidential information. So, the level of liability rises to a different stage since there is additional potential responsibilities that must be managed. In addition, some companies have allowed their employees to work from home and this business model makes it more difficult to manage cybersecurity risks. In other words, remote employees can become the proverbial “weakest link” which can be quite dangerous for the commercial enterprise.

A problem in the cybersecurity risk management formula is that change is never ending. The constant change in technology and law makes it more difficult for companies and their information technology managers to keep up. Our law firm’s cybersecurity lawyers generally recommend working with computer technology experts on a regular basis. This way, they can develop the necessary policies on their networks. They should identify the risks by understanding the cybersecurity rules and regulations. An information technology manager should implement internal and external policies to secure the network which usually holds confidential information. For example, the network should have a secure software or hardware firewall, encryption algorithm, and multi-factor authentication system. The information technology manager should develop and implement regular training sessions for employees.

Cybersecurity risk management requires proper due diligence on the company’s cybersecurity program. This is an important aspect because the company’s executives owe a fiduciary duty towards their shareholders and customers. In other words, a company’s manager or director should take every reasonable measure to ensure the safety and security of the company’s intellectual properties, trade secrets, and other sensitive or confidential information. As such, a claim or cause of action for breach of fiduciary duty can seriously hinder business operations and should be avoided by any means necessary.

We recommend properly assessing internal and external threats such as disgruntled employees or third-party contractors who were given access to the computer network system. It’s certainly possible for a disgruntled employee to insert a flash drive which yields malware into the network server to cause a malfunction. Therefore, it is important to have the right security measures implemented on the computer network system. For example, our cybersecurity lawyers recommend installing an Intrusion Detection System (“IDS”) to detect unauthorized access to sensitive or confidential files. It is important to review and understand the laws related to workplace monitoring because it could trigger workplace privacy right violations. There are state and federal laws that would impact the legal rights and responsibilities of employers and employees so it’s important to understand them. In fact, companies that fall under the definition of “critical infrastructure” organizations pursuant to Executive Order 13636 should consider implementing insider threat programs as a precautionary measure.

It’s recommended to have an enterprise risk assessment program that involves cybersecurity experts and lawyers. These computer and legal experts should join forces to establish a program that addresses the key issues – e.g., data privacy, data protection, insider threats, breach notification protocols. It’s important to have a plan before the so-called “cyber incident” so the key players will know their responsibilities. This way, when an incident takes place, there will be a preexisting protocol for everyone. Moreover, having access to a cybersecurity attorney is crucial to the company’s legal and ethical responsibilities. Our law firm advises its clients regarding the relevant state, federal, and international rules and regulations as we have the necessary background and expertise in internet, technology, and cybersecurity laws.

Cybersecurity risk management is a key component in avoiding cybersecurity incidents. Our law firm assists clients with breach response plans pursuant to the rules and regulations. An Incident Response Plan (“IRP”) should be carefully created to address cybersecurity incidents. There are strategic challenges with implementing an effective IRP within the organization but there could also be legal challenges. Hence, we encourage clients to implement a cybersecurity framework that can effectively prevent breaches. This can be done by working with qualified legal and computer experts.

We encourage clients to coordinate communications with their employees and representatives. The company’s partners and affiliates should also be aware of the breach notification and prevention protocols. This is especially important if the company has various locations and satellite offices. The company must act quickly when it finds out about a breach so that it can follow the rules and regulations. In fact, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (a/k/a “GDPR”) mandates breach notification to the proper authorities within three days. In addition, in California, the law imposes a 72-hour breach notification obligation under the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) which became effective on January 1, 2020.

We encourage clients to develop different types of response plans for various cybersecurity incidents. There are different types of breach that can take place on the computer network. In general, the bad actors compromise the computer network to steal personal information. However, availability attacks have also increased which in essence deny access to the system. For example, installing ransomware on the computers or launching a Distributed Denial of Service (“DDoS”) attack on the computer network can accomplish this task. There could be serious legal consequences if the company cannot properly protect its network which yields private and confidential information – e.g., intellectual property, trade secrets. There are various state, federal, and international laws in this context. For example, the Philippines Data Privacy Act defines a “security incident” as an event or occurrence that affects or tends to affect data protection or may compromise availability, integrity, or confidentiality.

Internet dispute resolution has evolved and become more prevalent in recent years. The internet has offered many advantages when it comes to electronic commercial transactions and communications. It has enabled e-commerce websites to gain access to domestic and foreign customers. Naturally, there could be disputes between the e-commerce websites and their customers, or alternatively, between the customers themselves. These disputes are usually related to contractual rights and responsibilities which can be resolved through alternative dispute resolution – e.g., arbitration, mediation.

Geographic location of the parties can create an impediment for dispute resolution purposes. This is especially true because in most circumstances the parties hire a third-party neutral to review their files and issue a final decision. Internet dispute resolution provides an option to have the parties reach a practical solution even though they may be in different jurisdictions. The parties and their neutral judge can be in geographically different locations and need not meet in person to reach a final decision. This, in and of itself, provides a huge advantage from a logistical point. It also brings down the cost of traveling since they can use videoconferencing technologies.

Technology tools and techniques have provided a relatively stable platform for internet dispute resolution procedures. The software and hardware technologies that are available today allow the neutral judge (e.g., arbitrator, mediator), and interested parties, to effectively participate in the dispute resolution procedure. They can securely send and receive files which may include sensitive or confidential information such as financial information. These technologies are using encryption for security reasons. This way, the parties can have trust and confidence in the process and effectively use it.

Internet dispute resolution is paramount in the age of technology and innovation. Cyber-negotiation strategies have proved to be effective for online dispute resolution providers. These providers allow the parties to resolve their disputes by submitting settlement offers and negotiating over the internet.

Cyber-mediation and cyber-arbitration are part of the online dispute resolution services. They present certain advantages and disadvantages when compared to traditional mediation and arbitration. For example, online dispute resolution is effective and easy especially since it does not require the parties to travel anywhere. It is less costly and time consuming when compared to the traditional options. However, the disadvantage may be that it is impersonal as the parties do not meet the neutral judge in person. So, in essence, the entire process takes place online and no one has the opportunity to have an in-person meeting.

In most contracts, there is some kind of dispute resolution provision that allows the parties to avoid a formal lawsuit. The provision can include language about a preselection of the service provider the parties have chosen for administering the dispute resolution process. This way, they can agree beforehand that all disputes will be resolved without a formal lawsuit in state or federal court. It is important to note that litigation can be time consuming and expensive and online dispute resolution providers can deliver an alternative option.

Internet dispute resolution procedures such as arbitration or mediation are necessary when there is an actual case or controversy between the parties. These types of alternative dispute resolution procedures provide a viable option for the parties to solve their legal claims before or during litigation. So, in general, an appointed neutral third party (i.e., arbitrator, mediator) reviews the case and renders a decision with the following caveat: Arbitration is usually a binding process but mediation is not binding between the parties.

Internet disputes arise in several areas such as business transactions that take place between commercial organizations and their customers. They take place during international e-commerce transactions. Internet disputes may also occur between users or subscribers of social media websites. In any event, all kinds of online disputes are taking place which should be addressed and resolved by a qualified neutral third-party – i.e., arbitrator, mediator.

International e-commerce transactions have expanded in recent years especially since there are multiple websites that provide a way to find and order products or services. These e-commerce websites (e.g., Amazon, eBay, Alibaba) sell a variety of products or services to their users or subscribers. So, naturally, there will be problems which is why there should be a fair and efficient resolution system.

Cybersecurity is the most important measure for protecting your personal and confidential information. There are cybersecurity incidents taking place on a daily basis. In general, most targets are companies and individuals who yield confidential information such as financial documents. This way, the hackers can use the information to promote their illegal acts or violations. In fact, it is known they use malware and spam to infiltrate electronic devices and extract confidential information.

Spam has been prolifically used by hackers to target victims. The hackers use this method to send unsolicited emails to victims. In other words, they ask them to click on a link or download a file which unbeknownst to the victim contains malware. Then, once the victim has downloaded the malware, his or her computer will be infected. The virus will extract personal information and send it back to the hacker. The virus may also use a “keylogger” to track the victim’s activities. It can track and record the victim’s financial transactions and find a way to log into his/her bank accounts.

Hackers can find their victims by using several methods. For example, phishing scams have been used to lure their victims into traps. They use instant messages and text messages to contact their victims. The hackers use these methods to take the victim’s usernames and passwords without authorization. They will try to gain access to the victim’s financial accounts and extract funds without authorization. As a result, the hackers will ruin the victim’s credit by opening up credit card or mortgage accounts without authorization. They can obtain cash advances if they gain access to the financial information. They will also utilize the victim’s social security number to engage in fraudulent activities.

Data breach incidents have caused a significant amount of complications for business owners and their customers. The statistics show that at least 50% or more of companies have been targeted by hackers. So, the lawmakers have taken steps to promulgate laws to protect the victims and penalize the bad actors.

Data Breach Notification Laws

Every state has some form of data breach notification legislation that requires business owners to give notice to consumers about a data breach that has resulted in the unauthorized acquisition of unencrypted personal information. These laws usually require the business owners to give notice to the consumers in the most efficient manner. They may require the business owners to notify the Attorney General’s office if the business is required to notify a significant number of residents in that state. They also grant a “private right of action” (i.e., the right to file a lawsuit) to the victim in order to seek legal and equitable damages.

Cybersecurity is paramount to secure online communications whether they are for sending or receiving sensitive or confidential information – e.g., trade secrets, intellectual properties, financial information. Many people assume they are protected on the internet when transferring or receiving files over computer networks. They may attach tax-related documents to their message and press the send button without hesitation. What most people do not realize is that information may be intercepted without authorization. Now, most laws require “reasonable security measures” to ensure the privacy of confidential records.

What are the state laws?

There is no single state law that applies to all cybersecurity-related issues. So, every state has promulgated several statutes in order to address and promote cybersecurity. These state laws are usually similar in their nature and scope. For example, California recently passed the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) codified under Civil Code Sections 1798.100, et seq., to enhance consumer privacy rights. It grants consumers the right to know what kind of personal information is being collected about them, whether the personal information is sold or disclosed, to refuse the sale of their personal information, to gain access to their personal information, to request deletion of their personal information, and to not be discriminated against for exercising their privacy rights.

International e-commerce laws have been evolving since the inception of the information technology age. International e-commerce transactions take place over a network of computers and have become more streamlined with technology advancements. The following topics will be evaluated and addressed in this article: alternative dispute resolution and insurance.

Alternative Dispute Resolution (“ADR”) is an important factor when it comes to international e-commerce transactions. It is much easier to resolve local disputes without geographical challenges. However, that is not the case with international commercial transactions because the parties can be anywhere in the world. So, tracking, identifying, or locating the customer is not an easy task for international commercial transactions and presents jurisdictional issues. In most cases, they are related to contractual disputes for the purchase and sale of products or services. There could be non-contractual disputes such as trademark, copyright, data protection, and domain name disputes. The parties should have the option to engage in mediation or arbitration to resolve the dispute. Mediation is conducted by a neutral expert who renders a non-binding decision after reviewing the file. Arbitration is conducted by a neutral expert who renders a binding decision after reviewing the file. Our international mediation and arbitration attorneys regularly provide professional legal services to clients.

In some European countries, the customers are permitted to file a lawsuit against the e-commerce company in their own country or where the e-commerce company is located even if the company has no business operations therein. For example, in LICRA v. Yahoo, the French courts issued an order against Yahoo, which is based in the United States, to prevent French residents from purchasing Nazi memorabilia through its website.