There are state and federal privacy laws that are applicable to consumers and commercial organizations. There has been much activity with the collection and distribution of private or confidential information in recent years. Personal information can be collected through several methods such as voluntary disclosures, cookies, website bugs, tracking software, malware (e.g., worms, trojans, spyware), and phishing. For example, tracking software can be used to collect information but there must be proper disclosure. Nonetheless, criminals do not follow the rules or guidelines and it is a known fact they have access to the tools and techniques to extract customer information without obtaining authorization.
Personal information is certainly valuable to its owner. It is also valuable to a bad actor who is seeking to misuse the personal information without authorization. The bad actors who obtain personal information in a secretive manner are planning to gain a profit. They may engage in identity theft or online impersonation by using the wrongfully obtained personal information. Identity theft has caused a significant amount of monetary damages to the victims. There are state and federal laws that prohibit identity theft in every jurisdiction. The National Conference of State Legislatures provides a comprehensive list of these laws. In California, the following state laws prohibit identity theft and provide remedies:
- California Penal Code § 368: It prohibits identity theft against elders and disabled persons;