Quantum Computer: Its Technology and Legal Effects

Quantum computing technology will certainly have an effect on state, federal, and international laws. A quantum computer is a much more capable electronic device and has the ability to process data faster.  In general, computers can manage, control, and process information by using individual bits that store information as binary 0 and 1 states. The so-called “bits” are electrical or optical pulses that come in the form of 0s and 1s. Now, quantum computers leverage quantum mechanics to process information by depending on quantum bits – i.e., qubits. The so-called “qubits” are subatomic particles like electrons or photons that are isolated in a controlled quantum state.

What is a quantum computer?

A quantum computer is a complicated electronic device that has several components such as a Qubit Signal Amplifier, Input Microwave Lines, Superconducting Coaxial Lines, Cryogenic Isolators, Quantum Amplifiers, Cryoperm Shield, and Mixing Chamber. It is a sophisticated system that works through “quantum superposition” and “quantum entanglement” for enhanced computing processes.

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that is used in the computing process. The conventional computer bits can only be either a 0 or a 1. However, qubits can be in numerous combinations of 0s and 1s at the same time. So, in that way, a quantum computer can simultaneously engage in multiple processes and solve complicated problems much faster.

Quantum entanglement happens when particles interact or share spatial proximity as if their quantum state cannot be independently described even if separated by a large distance. As such, the qubits are able to create a connection to one another that remains intact regardless of their distance from each other.

What are the legal effects?

Quantum computers will be used in various industries and will have significant legal effects especially due to artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies. Artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies will use quantum computers to promote their system capabilities for the following reasons: First, they use and process a significant amount of data. Second, artificial intelligence and machine learning are being used in time-consuming scientific research studies. Third, they need to process complicated algorithms. Fourth, they use multiple datasets for analysis and integration procedures. So, quantum machine learning – i.e., QML – will be used to develop better results.

The legal issues will correlate to privacy, security and regulation. For example, privacy and security laws will be impacted because quantum computers can decrypt encrypted files much faster than conventional computers. Public-key cryptography creates a publicly-available key from a secret key which is required to decrypt the file. So, since public-key cryptography is being used on the internet, the information protected by public-key encryption could be vulnerable against quantum computers.

Quantum computers can be used by hackers to infiltrate network systems and steal trade secrets. They can be used to break the presumably unbreakable codes within a split second. Moreover, it can be used in international cyberwarfare by governments and their secret agents. Therefore, the international community must move towards a convention against the use of weaponized quantum computers.

Intellectual property is considered an asset for its owner. The owner of this valuable information (e.g., patents, trademarks, copyrights) should protect the assets from unauthorized access. Therefore, they should be registered with the state and federal government agencies that are charged with the task. In some cases, the intellectual property owners store confidential information on the network using a security mechanism such as a firewall or encryption. Now, the hackers will try to infiltrate the network when they realize the location of the intellectual property, and if readily accessible, they will probably use quantum computers to speed up the process.

Google, IBM, Intel, and Microsoft are conducting research and are in the process of designing their own quantum computers. For example, Google has an informative website that can be accessed by visiting https://research.google/teams/applied-science/quantum.

It’s important to know your legal rights and responsibilities when it comes to quantum computing laws. Please contact our law firm to speak with a knowledgeable quantum technology attorney at your convenience.